Drug Resistance Tubercolosis

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis (TB) caused by bacteria that are resistant to one or more of the first-line drugs used to treat TB, such as isoniazid & rifampicin. 

DR-TB can also be resistant to second-line drugs, which are more expensive, have more side effects, & require longer treatment durations.

DR-TB is a major public health threat, as it is much more difficult & expensive to treat than drug-susceptible TB, & can also spread more easily to other people. 

DR-TB can be transmitted from person to person through the air, just like drug-susceptible TB.There are two main types of DR-TB: multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), which is resistant to both isoniazid & rifampicin, & extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). 

Which is resistant to isoniazid & rifampicin, as well as to at least one second-line drug from the fluoroquinolone & injectable drug classes.

The development of DR-TB is largely driven by inadequate or incomplete treatment of drug-susceptible TB, which allows the bacteria to survive & develop resistance. 

Other factors that can contribute to the emergence & spread of DR-TB include poor infection control in healthcare settings, the use of substandard or counterfeit drugs, & migration of people.

Treatment of DR-TB is much more challenging than treatment of drug-susceptible TB, & requires a longer duration of treatment (up to two years or more), more toxic & expensive drugs.

Treatment must be individualized based on the results of drug susceptibility testing & the patient's medical history & treatment adherence.

Prevention of DR-TB includes early diagnosis & treatment of drug-susceptible TB, infection control measures in healthcare settings, & improved drug access & treatment adherence support for people with TB.

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