Secretes of the Polio Virus
Poliovirus is a highly infectious virus that can cause poliomyelitis or polio, a serious disease that can cause paralysis, muscle weakness, & respiratory failure.
The virus belongs to the family of Picornaviridae & has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.
There are three serotypes of poliovirus: PV1, PV2, & PV3, with PV1 being the most common cause of polio.
The virus is spread primarily through the fecal-oral route, which means it can be transmitted through contaminated water, food, or surfaces that have been in contact with the virus.
Poliovirus infects & replicates in the cells of the digestive tract, where it can cause mild symptoms such as fever, headache, & nausea.
However, in some cases, the virus can invade the nervous system, leading to severe symptoms such as paralysis, muscle weakness, & respiratory failure.
This is known as paralytic polio, which can cause permanent disability or even death in some cases. Polio primarily affects children under the age of 5, but it can also affect adults.
People who are not vaccinated against the virus are at the highest risk of infection. The disease is more common in areas with poor sanitation & low vaccination rates.
Fortunately, polio is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) can protect individuals from polio.
IPV contains killed poliovirus, while OPV contains weakened live poliovirus. Both vaccines stimulate the body's immune system to produce antibodies against poliovirus, providing immunity against the disease.
The eradication of poliovirus is a global public health priority. The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 with the aim of eradicating poliovirus worldwide.
The initiative has made significant progress in reducing the number of polio cases globally, with a 99% reduction in the number of cases since 1988.
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